A person can get GDM with or without the risk factors below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your chances of getting it. Women who many risk factors should ask their doctor what they can do to lower the risk.

Risk factors for GDM:

Obesity or Overweight

Women who are overweight or obese are at an increased risk of GDM. Body mass index is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. Women with a higher BMI are at greater risk.

Family History of Diabetes

Women who have family members with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk.

GDM in a Previous Pregnancy

Women who have had GDM in a prior pregnancy are at risk of getting it again.


Being older than 35 may increase the risk of GDM.


GDM is more common in women who are:

  • Latino
  • Native American
  • Asian
  • Black
  • Pacific Islander

Other Risk Factors

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